Geography of PrayagrajIndia’s one of the most rapidly growing cities, Allahabad, is known to be the second oldest historic city. The city speaks a lot about the Hinduism, which can be vividly observed through the spectacular temples and sculptures. According to Hindu mythology, the original name of Allahabad was Prayag, which was derived from the Sanskrit word Sangam. It refers to the intersection of three sacred rivers of the city namely Ganges, Yamuna and Saraswati. This fast emerging city is known to be the administrative headquarter of Uttar Pradesh. Allahabad is considered to be the apex of spiritual as well as technological development of the country.
The southern segment of Uttar Pradesh, 25.45 degree N 81.84 degree E, is occupied by this religious city. Allahabad is skirted by Bhadohi on its east, Kaushambi on the west, Rewa on the south and Pratapgarh on its northern direction. This prosperous city covers almost 63.07 square kilometres as it territory. The Rewa district bridges Allahabad with Madhya Pradesh. The Allahabad district has been separated into eight tehsils, which have been further divided into twenty development blocks. Two major rivers of this area have bisected Allahabad and have gifted a spectacular view to the enthusiastic tourists. Allahabad has indeed proved its importance with respect to its geographical as well as culturally position.
Bundelkhand region lies on the south-west of Allahabad district, and to its east and south-east direction lays the Baghelkhand region. The popular Awadh region is located to the north and north-east of Allahabad while to its west is the Doab region. Allahabad city is segregated by the railway line crossing across the city. The British built Civil Lines is situated in the northern side of Allahabad, whereas the south of the railway line is known as the Old Chowk locality. Allahabad is located at the end point of the Yamuna River and is a section of the Ganga-Yamuna Doab.
Climate of Allahabad
Allahabad experiences a fairly humid sub-tropical climate all throughout the year. The annual mean temperature is recorded at 26.1 degree C (79degree F), while the monthly mean temperatures are within the range of 18-29 degree C (64-84 degree F). Allahabad is subject to 3 main seasons such as cold dry winter, warm humid monsoon and hot dry summer. The winter season extends from December to February, while the summer begins in April and lasts till June with an average temperature of 30 degree C. However, during extremely dry days the maximum temperature often goes beyond 40 degree C in the months of May and June. During the winter season the temperature seldom drops to the freezing point. The maximum temperatures recorded during these cool days are 22 degree C and the minimum fluctuates around 9 degree C. Allahabad usually gets its monsoon spells between the months from July and September. The highest temperature recorded in Allahabad till date is 48 degree C, while the extreme lowest is -2 degree C.
Allahabad experiences rain either due to the Arabian Sea branch of Arabian Sea or south-west summer monsoon from the Bay of Bengal branch. The heavy monsoon usually hits Allahabad between the months of June and September. The city receives most of its annual rainfall of 1027mm in these months. The highest monthly rainfall of 296mm lashes in August. Allahabad undergoes 2961 hours of sunshine every year with the highest sunlight exposure happening in May.
Rivers in Allahabad
The Ganges, one of the prominent rivers on Earth, is the supreme waterway in this country. The Ganga is considered to be the most sacred river to the Hindu believers. The river originates from the Gangotri Glacier of Himalayas and circulates in India and Bangladesh before draining out into the Bay of Bengal. A huge number of people depend on this river for their survival.
Allahabad can be identified by the connection of the three important rivers of India namely The Ganges, the Saraswati and the Yamuna. These three holy and pure rivers make the city a sacred place for the visitors. It is believed that a holy bath in this confluence or ‘Sangam’ can wash away everybody’s sins and also release them from the process of rebirth. This union of three rivers in Allahabad is nothing other than the popular Triveni Sangam.
The sight of one such Triveni Sangam can be viewed in Prayag, Allahabad. Besides being a spot of utmost religious importance and the celebrated Kumbh Mela, this junction of the rivers is also notable for being the witness of immersion of ashes of few national leaders.
Even while merging, these three rivers maintain their individual identity. The Ganges is shallow yet transparent and potent. The Yamuna on the other hand is deep, but composed and green coloured. However, the Saraswati remains physically invisible with the strong belief that she exists under water. During heavy monsoon the rivers become vigorous which makes a dip very dangerous. It is at this time that the confluence becomes distinctly visible. Near the blending point of these rivers, Yamuna is 40ft deep whereas the Ganga is only 4ft. Yamuna merges into the Ganges at this nexus point, while the latter continues its usual course until it connects with the Bay of Bengal. The Saraswati conjoins these two principle rivers at the confluence. The visitors can also perceive the beauty added by the vibrant migratory birds in January. This enhances the picturesque look of the rivers during the great Kumbh Mela.
Demographics of Allahabad
The official state language of Allahabad, Hindi also serves as the dominant language. However, the white collar people working in Allahabad use English as their spoken language. A minority of the population also speaks Urdu. Awadhi is one of the popular Hindi dialects spoken in Allahabad, although Khariboli is more frequently spoken. In the eastern part of Allahabad, Awadhi is the more regularly used dialect, while Punjabi and Bengali are two other common languages spoken in Allahabad.
Population of Allahabad
The 2011 census conducted by the Govt. Of India has reported a total population of 5954391 out of which 3131807 were male and 2822584 were females. In comparison, Allahabad had a total population of 4936105 in 2001. According to 2011 census, Allahabad district population was at 2.98% of the entire UP population.
As per the provisional data declared initially by 2011 census, the population density of Allahabad was 1086 people per square kilometre as compared to 901 people per square kilometre in 2001. The district covers a total area of 5482 square kilometres. There has been a change of 20.63% in the total population in 2011 compared to 2001.
Allahabad’s average literacy rate was 72.32 in 2011 as compared to 62.11 in 2001. Gender wise, the literacy rates of males and females were 82.55 and 60.97 respectively. The same attributes, in 2001 census were at 75.81 and 46.38. In Allahabad district, the total literates were 3665727, out of which 2199340 were males and 1466387 were females.
According to the census enumeration done by the census officials, a total of 885355 children were there within the age 0-6 years. According to 2011 census, the child sex ratio was 893. Children of the age 0-6 years constituted 14.87% of the total Allahabad population.
Facts about Allahabad
The name Allahabad was derived from the “Garden of Allah” given by the Mughal emperors.
Allahabad comprises of many significant government offices. Therefore it acquires an important place in Indian administration.
This is one of the rapidly developing cities in India. Since seven Indian Prime ministers resided here till date, Allahabad is connoted as ‘the city of Prime ministers’.
Kumbh Mela, a very popular and religious event of India, is organized in this city in a span of every four years. According to the Hindu mythology, Allahabad is considered to be gifted with the blessings of the ‘Brahma’- The Creator of the Universe.
The two important rivers of India, the Ganga and Yamuna, run through this city. As a result, Allahabad is regarded as highly sanctified by Hindus worldwide.
There has been a mention of the name of this ancient Allahabad city in the grand epics like Ramayana, Mahabharata and the Puranas, as the famous Prayag. It was later renamed as ‘Illahabad’ in 1575 by Mughal Emperor Akbar.
This city has been connected with many famous personalities like Jawaharlal Nehru, Amitabh Bachan, Rajiv Gandhi and many alike.
One of the world’s largest religious congregations occurs at the banks of the confluence of Ganga, Saraswati and Yamuna. After every 12 years, an enormous crowd is observed at the convergence of these 3 rivers. This place is also known as Sangam.
The 4th oldest Indian University, Allahabad University, was established in 1887. It is renowned for offering quality education in courses like Chemistry, Literature, Physics, Arts, Medicine, Engineering and many more.
Indian GMT (Greenwich Mean Time) longitude 25.15 degree N 82.58 degree E crosses very close to Allahabad.
Allahabad is also known as Tirtha-Raja i.e. the king of all holy spots. It is also said that that Allahabad was visited by Sri Ramachandra while he was in exile.
Allahabad has been gifted with cultural diversity, historic eras, religious sites, the touch of the sacred Ganga and Yamuna and the rich flora and fauna. The above chief facts about Allahabad have made the city so special to the Allahabad residents and the tourists. The beauty and significance of this place has not been restricted only to India, but has overflowed to the foreign travelers too.
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